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Copper Wire Limitations

Due to the electrical properties of copper wiring, data signals will undergo some corruption during their travels. Signal corruption within certain limits is acceptable, but if the electrical properties of the cable will cause serious distortion of the signal, that cable must be replaced or repaired. As a signal propagates down a length of cable, […]
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Computer Circuits

A network is a collection of electrical signaling circuits, each carrying digital signals between pieces of equipment. There are power sources, conductors, and loads involved in the process. The power source is a network device that transmits an electrical signal. The conductors are the wires that the signal travels over to reach its destination (another […]
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Common Types of Cabling

Unshielded twisted pair cables, 22-24 gauge (UTP) Advantages Inexpensive, may be in place in some places; familiar and simple to install. Disadvantages Subject to interference, both internal and external; limited bandwidth, which translates into slower transmissions. Somewhat vulnerable to security breaches; may become obsolete quickly because of new technologies. Shielded twisted pair cables, 22-24 (STP) […]
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Common Ethernet Systems

10BASE-5 or (Thick Ethernet) 10BASE-5 is the original Ethernet system. It employs a quarter of an inch diameter, 50 ohm coax cable ( with minimum bend radius of 10 inches). 10BASE-5 segments can run in length up to 500 meters with as many as 100 transceiver connections spaced at lease 2.75 yards apart. 10BASE-5 transceivers […]
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Circuit Protection

Protectors are surge arresters designed for the specific requirements of communications circuits. They are required for all aerial circuits not confined with a block. (Block here means city block.) They must be installed on all circuits with a block that could accidentally contact power circuits over 300 volts to ground. They must also be listed […]
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Category Cables

The Category Rating System was developed by TIA as a response to the industry’s request for higher data rate specifications on applications over unshielded (UTP) and shielded (STP) twisted pair. This rating systems has been integrated into the body of the EIA/TIA-568A standard document. The category rating system only applies to 100 ohm UTP and […]
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Cable Administration

Horizontal voice cables Blue Inter-building backbone Brown Second-level backbone Gray Network connections and auxiliary circuits Green Demarcation point,telephone cable from Central Office Orange First-level backbone Purple Key-type telephone systems Red Horizontal data cables, computer & PBX equipment Silver or White Auxiliary, maintenance & security alarms Yellow
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Basic Channel Link Next Loss

Frequency(MHz) Category 3(dB) Category 4(dB) Category 5(dB) 1 3.2/4.2 2.2/2.6 2.1/2.5 4 6.1/7.3 4.3/4.8 4/4.5 8 8.8/10.2 6/6.7 5.7/6.3 10 10/11.5 6.8/7.5 6.3/7 16 13.2/14.9 8.8/9.9 8.2/9.2 20 9.9/11 9.2/10.3 25 10.3/11.4 31.25 11.5/12.8 62.5 16.7/18.5 100 21.6/24
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Basic Channel Link Attenuation

Frequency(MHz) Category 3(dB) Category 4(dB) Category 5(dB) 1 3.2/4.2 2.2/2.6 2.1/2.5 4 6.1/7.3 4.3/4.8 4/4.5 8 8.8/10.2 6/6.7 5.7/6.3 10 10/11.5 6.8/7.5 6.3/7 16 13.2/14.9 8.8/9.9 8.2/9.2 20 9.9/11 9.2/10.3 25 10.3/11.4 31.25 11.5/12.8 62.5 16.7/18.5 100 21.6/24
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